From: Monona Rossol <actsnyc**At_Symbol_Here**>
Subject: Re: [DCHAS-L] Buyer Beware Of 3-D Printer Emissions
Date: Mon, 25 Jan 2016 09:02:59 -0500
Reply-To: DCHAS-L <DCHAS-L**At_Symbol_Here**MED.CORNELL.EDU>
Message-ID: 152791843b6-713b-37c**At_Symbol_Here**
In-Reply-To <4071432B-B1D9-4E6C-AB67-D062A3378667**At_Symbol_Here**>

Thank you.  Since the 3D printers first came out, my building planning reports have always recommended enclosure and exhaust.  What good does selection of building materials that offgas low amounts of VOCs and requirements for high efficiency outdoor air filtration for replacement outdoor air do if the rooms contain 3D printers emitting both VOCs and particulate?   

Some art schools I've seen have up to a dozen of assorted 3D printers in one room.   And for you IHs, check out architecture departments on your rounds.  I have seen really ugly things going on there with 3D printers and laser cutters--creating big room-sized sculptural productions.  One involved cutting of a material that was a plastic/aluminum laminate which carries some explosion/fire risks in cutting and machining. The faculty and students use many art materials and get no hazcom training as the rule.

Visit the art and architecture departments at the ends of semesters when projects are due and people are working around the clock.  Also go to their exhibits and ask yourself how these things came into being.  

Monona Rossol, M.S., M.F.A., Industrial Hygienist
President:  Arts, Crafts & Theater Safety, Inc.
Safety Officer: Local USA829, IATSE
181 Thompson St., #23
New York, NY 10012     212-777-0062


-----Original Message-----
From: Secretary, ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety <secretary**At_Symbol_Here**DCHAS.ORG>
Sent: Mon, Jan 25, 2016 7:42 am
Subject: [DCHAS-L] Buyer Beware Of 3-D Printer Emissions 

Buyer Beware Of 3-D Printer Emissions
Indoor Air Pollution: Particulates and volatile organic compounds could reach harmful levels in office-sized spaces 

Emissions of Ultrafine Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Commercially Available Desktop Three-Dimensional Printers with Multiple Filaments

Previous research has shown that desktop 3D printers can emit large numbers of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles less than 100 nm) and some hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during printing, although very few filament and 3D printer combinations have been tested to date. Here we quantify emissions of UFPs and speciated VOCs from five commercially available filament extrusion desktop 3D printers utilizing up to nine different filaments by controlled experiments in a test chamber. Median estimates of time-varying UFP emission rates ranged from =E2=88=BC108 to =E2=88=BC1011 min-1 across all tested combinations, varying primarily by filament material and, to a lesser extent, bed temperature. The individual VOCs emitted in the largest quantities included caprolactam from nylon-based and imitation wood and brick filaments (ranging from =E2=88=BC2 to =E2=88=BC180 =CE=BCg/min), styrene from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) filaments (ranging from =E2=88=BC10 to =E2=88=BC110 =CE=BCg/min), and lactide from polylactic acid (PLA) filaments (ranging from =E2=88=BC4 to =E2=88=BC5 =CE=BCg/min). Results from a screening analysis of potential exposure to these products in a typical small office environment suggest caution should be used when operating many of the printer and filament combinations in poorly ventilated spaces or without the aid of combined gas and particle filtration systems.

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