From: Samuella B. Sigmann <sigmannsb**At_Symbol_Here**APPSTATE.EDU>
Subject: Re: [DCHAS-L] HCl concentration and hazard
Date: Sun, 5 Mar 2017 15:43:55 -0500
Reply-To: ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety <DCHAS-L**At_Symbol_Here**PRINCETON.EDU>
Message-ID: fb18b53b-f0db-f675-60aa-c80f95d24e54**At_Symbol_Here**
In-Reply-To <95BF2986-E6A9-40CF-AB65-2DEAB13BB9D6**At_Symbol_Here**>

On 3/5/2017 2:15 PM, Stuart, Ralph wrote:

I am a firm believer that middle-of -the-road students get more engaged in the learning when they are doing something hands-on and generating data that is their own and do learn better due to being more engaged.  
That's an interesting observation. Do you know of literature that this idea is based on?
There are probably literally hundreds of articles on this idea. One that comes to mind is not an article, but the principles that guided the development of the 1996 National Science Education Standards These have been updated now, but the pedagogy is still sound. In 2006, I was Co-Pi on an NSF grant that utilized this theory to justify giving access to non-science majors to hi-tech equipment. The info below is from Chapter 2 and there are references at the end on p. 24. I am sure tons of studies have been done this this was published.

This information was taken from Page 19 of the 1996 National Science Education Standards which was guided by four principles.

The first two principles and some of the theory behind them are:

  1. Science is for all students ?? Which says in part?|.

Excellence in science education embodies the ideal that all students can achieve understanding of science if they are given the opportunity. The content standards describe outcomes??what students should understand and be able to do, not the manner in which students will achieve those outcomes. Students will achieve understanding in different ways and at different depths as they answer questions about the natural world. And students will achieve the outcomes at different rates, some sooner than others. But all should have opportunities in the form of multiple experiences over several years to develop the understanding associated with the Standards.

2. Learning science is an active process ?? Which says in part?|.

Learning science is something students do, not something that is done to them. In learning science, students describe objects and events, ask questions, acquire knowledge, construct explanations of natural phenomena, test those explanations in many different ways, and communicate their ideas to others. In the National Science Education Standards, the term "active process" implies physical and mental activity. Hands-on activities are not enough??students also must have "minds-on" experiences.

Learning science is something students do, not something that is done to them.

Science teaching must involve students in inquiry-oriented investigations in which they interact with their teachers and peers. Students establish connections between their current knowledge of science and the scientific knowledge found in many sources; they apply science content to new questions; they engage in problem solving, planning, decision making, and group discussions; and they experience assessments that are consistent with an active approach to learning.



We, the willing, led by the unknowing, are doing the impossible for the ungrateful. We have done so much, for so long, with so little, we are now qualified to do everything with nothing. Teresa Arnold paraphrased from Konstantin Josef Jire?ek (1854 ?? 1918)

Samuella B. Sigmann, MS, NRCC-CHO

Senior Lecturer/Safety Committee Chair/Director of Stockroom

A. R. Smith Department of Chemistry

Appalachian State University

525 Rivers Street

Boone, NC 28608

Phone: 828 262 2755

Fax: 828 262 6558

Email: sigmannsb**At_Symbol_Here**

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