I've been using a Mettler-Toledo (MT) RC1e reaction calorimeter for about 6 years. Our system came with MT's iControl software, RTCal, and 2 feed pumps with balances. Overall it has proven its worth for chemical process safety and has helped us understand and adjust the thermal profile of diverse reactions. Like everything else, MT's RC1e has many strengths and a few weaknesses.
The RC1e's mechanical side seems reasonably robust. Our instrument sits in a walk-in fume hood resting on a low lab benchtop supported by an excess of cinder blocks- it is a heavy beast. During installation we discovered that the unit would not achieve stable calibration with the hood sash down. The control box mounted on the instrument didn't work properly on installation. After a trip to the repair shop, the box was returned as functional but without finding the fault.
Recently we had a mixing valve fail in the heat transfer plumbing, resulting in down time. Diagnosis of this was unsuccessful over the email and phone, necessitating a service call. Parts may not be inventoried in the US and consequently must come from Switzerland. Expect Swiss prices and less than snappy delivery. Hey, it's been my experience.
A chiller unit is required for RC1 operation and can add 15-30k$ to the setup cost. Users will have to contend with the loss of floor space in the lab for the chiller and RC1. Chillers can take many hours to get down to the set temperature. Given that RC1 experiments can also be lengthy, plan accordingly. Our (brand new Neslab 80) chiller requires nearly 2 and 1/2 hours to get from +20 C to -20 C, which is the upper chiller temperature we use, depending on the reaction chemistry. For reactions that are on the sporty side, we'll drop the chiller to - 50 C. This is near the minimum temperature for the water-based chilling fluid we use. Early on I opted for an aqueous lithium formate solution with a very low freezing point. It's a little spendy, but a pool of it on the floor cannot warm up to become combustible and an ESD ignition hazard. Also, it is odorless.
The chiller required the wiring-in of a dedicated single-phase 240 VAC circuit. With the chiller using single-phase and the RC1e using 3-phase 240 VAC, it is important to assure that one cannot inadvertently connect into the wrong power circuit (idiot proofing). The chiller plug design should already prevent this. It is critical that the electrician is alert to this and does NOT jury-rig the plugs to use the same style of connectors because he has only one style in the parts bin.
Some comments on the collection and interpretation of RC1 thermograms.
- It is critical that those who request RC1 experiments understand the limitations of the instrument. For instance, we use a 2 Liter reaction vessel with a 400 mL minimum fill volume. Refluxing is not allowed owing to the huge thermal noise input from the reflux return stream. Special equipment is said to be available for reflux.
- Experiments must be carefully designed to elicit results that can answer questions about feed rates and energy accumulation.
- Like many instruments, the RC1 needs a dedicated keeper and contact person for inside and outside communication. A maintenance logbook should be kept next to the instrument if for no other reason than to pass along learnings from previous issues.
- If thermokinetic measurement is part of your organization's development SOP, someone on staff should be reasonably familiar with chemical thermodynamics. That can be a chemical engineer, as may often be the case.
- The users of thermal data are likely to need help with interpretation of the results. Be prepared to offer advice on interpreting the data, taking care not to over-interpret. If you don't know, say so. It is easier to claw back "I don't know" than "yeah, go ahead and do that ...".
- Do not be anxious to singlehandedly bear the weight of responsibility for safety. Safety is a group responsibility.
- Be curious. How do the insights and learnings from the data translate into best practices? What changes, if any, can the process chemists make to nudge the process for better safety and yields? A credible specialist in RC can make comments or ask questions that lead to better discussions on thermal hazards. Be a fly in the ointment.
- Never forget that a reaction calorimeter is a blunt instrument for the understanding of a reaction. An RC1 thermogram is a composite of overlapping solution-phase phenomena. Interpretation of results can be greatly refined by pulling timely aliquots for NMR, GC/MS, or HPLC analysis.
- A database should be constructed to collect and immortalize learnings from all safety work and RC1 learnings fall into that group.
There is the question of who collects and presents the data. An engineer or a chemist? Engineering thermodynamics is a big part of a chemical engineer's education and skill set. As a plus, an engineer can take thermal data and apply it to scale-up design for safety and sizing of equipment and utilities. You know, the engineering part.
Do not be anxious to singlehandedly bear the weight of responsibility for safety. Alpha males- are you listening?? Safety is a group responsibility that should originate from a healthy group dynamic.
There's a good argument for a chemist to conduct RC experiments as well. A trained synthesis chemist is qualified to conduct chemical reactions within their organization. That includes sourcing raw materials, handling them, running the reaction, and safely cleaning up the equipment afterwards. But interpreting RC1 data has a large physical chemistry component. In my experience, run of the mill inorganic/organic synthesispeople may have seen PChem as an obstacle rather than a focus in their college education. Their skill set is in instrumental analysis like NMR and chromatography, mechanisms, and reaction chemistry. I would recommend having a PhD chemist with a focus on thermo in a leadership role when calorimetry is a key part of a busy process safety environment.
Safety data can be collected and archived all day long. The crucial and often tricky part is how to develop best practices from the data. I would offer that this is inherently a cross-disciplinary problem. Calorimetric data from reaction chemistry can be collected readily, especially with the diverse and excellent instrumentation available today. Adiabatic temperature rise, =CE"Tad, can be determined by a chemist, but it's the engineers understand how the equipment may respond to a given heat release. A smooth and efficient technology transfer from lab to plant happens when good communication skills are used. Yes, SOP's must be in place for consistency and safety. But the positive effect of individuals who have good social skills and are prone to volunteering information cannot be underestimated.