From: Monona Rossol <0000030664c37427-dmarc-request**At_Symbol_Here**LISTS.PRINCETON.EDU>
Subject: Re: [DCHAS-L] Is lead sheeting a source of lead dust? And-Chemical Exposure question...
Date: Fri, 26 Jul 2019 17:54:33 +0000
Reply-To: ACS Division of Chemical Health and Safety <DCHAS-L**At_Symbol_Here**PRINCETON.EDU>
Message-ID: 1049508147.7285160.1564163673954**At_Symbol_Here**

Yes, it's a problem. The area will probably wipe test at over the 200 ug/f2 that OSHA uses in their housekeeping rule (if you doubt this, I'll send you the letter of interpretation and citations using this limit)

Here'a and article I wrote in the ACTS FACTS newsletter in 1996.  


AIHA Journal, "Potential Health Hazards from Lead Shielding,"  57:1124-1126, Dec. 1996

Uncoated metallic lead is widely used as radiation shielding in research and development, manufacturing, and in nuclear medicine and radiology.  Tests of the dust around lead storage areas and of the air while workers move lead objects indicated that handling and storage of metallic lead may present an insidious health hazard.  

Floor wipe samples from lead storage areas ranged over nearly two orders of magnitude, from about 10-450 micrograms/100 square centimeters (ug/100 cm2). Similarly, samples of floor dust collected near seven different shielding storage areas all showed substantial lead concentrations, ranging from a low of 2800 milligrams/kilogram (mg/kg) to 34,000 mg/kg, with most samples within 15,000 to 30,000 mg/kg. These values and their variability reflect not only the flaking of lead from shielding, but also their susceptibility to contact and disturbance, and the frequency and extent of area housekeeping.

Twenty breathing zone air samples were collected during manual handling and stacking of lead brick to form shielding structures.  One of the eight-hour time-weighted average exposures was above the OSHA action level of 30 micrograms/meter3.  The others were below the action level primarily because they were taken for only short work periods (4-5 hours).  It was clear from these tests, that merely handling and moving lead objects can result in overexposure.

Surprisingly, the data indicate that lead is readily dispersed from visibly oxidized as well as freshly-cleaned lead surfaces, although oxidized surfaces produced the highest concentrations of lead contamination. A single coating of polyurethane was shown to reduce lead removal by nearly three orders of magnitude.

COMMENT. This study is very relevant to crafts in which lead metal is used. Artists must consider that even storing and handling came, solder, lead ingots, sheet lead, type lead, junk yard pipes for sculpture, and other lead items can create dust and airborne lead in amounts that may be hazardous.


-----Original Message-----
From: Margaret Rakas <mrakas**At_Symbol_Here**SMITH.EDU>
Sent: Fri, Jul 26, 2019 12:54 pm
Subject: [DCHAS-L] Is lead sheeting a source of lead dust? And-Chemical Exposure question...

So...two questions for Friday...

1) If you found a large stack of lead sheets...sitting in a storage area for some time (who knows how long!?)...would you be concerned about lead dust in the immediate area, say the surrounding floor?  I understand that grinding, sanding, filing, etc creates lead dust but this situation doesn't fit any of those...I cannot find any references so in case I'm imagining that just because it's soft, dust forms over time....I wanted to check...

2) A student asked me if there were any chemicals for which you would NOT want to use water in case of chemical exposure.  I did a quick search and the Canadian CCOHS (their OSHA) advises "...Note that the manufacturer/supplier .. may recommend an alternative agent in exceptional cases if water is clearly inappropriate."  I have read plenty of SDS's in my time but have never seen an SDS state anything other than using water as the first step.  Has anyone ever encountered any other initial instructions for dermal or eye exposure?  (Of course there may be additional steps AFTER water flushing, like use of calcium gluconate gel, etc)...

MANY THANKS and happy Friday to all!

Margaret A. Rakas, Ph.D.
Lab Safety & Compliance Director
Clark Science Center
413-585-3877 (p)

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