From: "Stuart, Ralph" <Ralph.Stuart**At_Symbol_Here**>
Subject: [DCHAS-L] Assessing and Reducing the Toxicity of 3D-Printed Parts
Date: Tue, 12 Jan 2016 20:12:10 +0000
Reply-To: DCHAS-L <DCHAS-L**At_Symbol_Here**MED.CORNELL.EDU>
Message-ID: F669C74D-D63E-412E-B8E5-935481EC166F**At_Symbol_Here**

I suspect that many of us are not surprised by this...

- Ralph

ABSTRACT: 3D printing is gaining popularity by providing a tool for fast, cost-effective, and highly customizable fabrication. However, little is known about the toxicity of 3D-printed objects. In this work, we assess the toxicity of printed parts from two main classes of commercial 3D printers, fused deposition modeling and stereo- lithography. We assessed the toxicity of these 3D-printed parts using zebrafish (Danio rerio), a widely used model organism in aquatic toxicology. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to 3D-printed parts and monitored for rates of survival, hatching, and developmental abnormalities. We found that parts from both types of printers were measurably toxic to zebrafish embryos, with STL-printed parts significantly more toxic than FDM-printed parts. We also developed a simple post-printing treatment (exposure to ultraviolet light) that largely mitigates the toxicity of the STL-printed parts. Our results call attention to the need for strategies for the safe !
disposal of 3D-printed parts and printer waste materials.

Ralph Stuart, CIH, CCHO
Chemical Hygiene Officer
Keene State College


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