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Precautionary Statements (P-Statements)

Definition

Precautionary Statements (P-Statments) are part of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals (GHS). Precautionary statements provide standardized wording and/or pictograms to describe recommended measures that should be taken to minimize or prevent adverse effects resulting from exposures to a hazardous product, or improper storage, handling, or disposal of a hazardous product.

The GHS also has Hazard Statements which provide standardized hazard wordings. You will usually find both P- and H-statements on a label or Safety Data Sheet.

In the European Union, P-statements have replaced Safety phrases (S-phrases) with the adoption of the GHS under Regulation (EC) No 1272/2008 (20 MB PDF file).

Additional Info

Precautionary statements are assigned a unique numerical code which can be used as a handy reference when translating labels and MSDS's written in other languages. The codes are not a substitute for writing out the entire text of the statement.

The codes have the form Pnxx where P stands for "Precautionary Statement", xx is a sequential numbering scheme, and the value of n refers to:

  1. general precautionary statements
  2. prevention precautionary statements
  3. response precautionary statements
  4. storage precautionary statements
  5. disposal precautionary statements

Thus, a Safety Data Sheet or label might bear a statement such as "Pressurized container; Do not pierce or burn, even after use (P251)". P indicates a Precautionary Statement, the 2 indicates it is a prevention precautionary statement, and 51 is part of the numbering scheme.

General Precautionary Statement Codes, P1xx

CodeGeneral Precautionary StatementHazard Class (GHS Chapter)Hazard CategoryConditions for Use
P101If medical advice is needed, have product container or label at hand. as appropriate Consumer Products
P102Keep out of reach of children. as appropriate Consumer Products
P103Read label before use. as appropriate Consumer Products

Prevention Precautionary Statement Codes, P2xx

CodeGeneral Precautionary StatementHazard Class (GHS Chapter)Hazard CategoryConditions for Use
P201Obtain special instructions before use.Explosives (Chapter 2.1)Unstable explosive 
Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity, effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additonal Category
P202Do not handle until all safety precautions have been read and understood.Explosives (Chapter 2.1)Unstable explosive 
Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
P210Keep away from heat/sparks/open flames/hot surfaces. - No smoking.Explosives (Chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 
Flammable gases (chapter 2.2)1, 2
Flammable aerosols (chapter 2.3)1, 2
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3
Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)4specify to keep away from flames and hot surfaces
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3specify to keep away from heat
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
P211Do not spray on an open flame or other ignition source.Flammable aerosols (chapter 2.3)1, 2 
P220Keep/Store away from clothing/.../combustible materials.Oxidizing gases (chapter 2.4)1... Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify other incompatible materials
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)2, 3
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)2, 3
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1- specify to keep away from clothing and other combustible materials.
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P221Take any precaution to avoid mixing with combustibles/..Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3... Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify other incompatible materials.
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
P222Do not allow contact with air.Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1 
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
P230Keep wetted with ...Explosives (Chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.5... Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify appropriate material.
- if drying out increases explosion hazard, except as needed for manufacturing or operating processes (e.g. nitrocellulose).
P231Handle under inert gas.Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3 
P232Protect from moisture.Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3 
P233Keep container tightly closed.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3- if product is volatile so as to generate hazardous atmosphere.
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P234Keep only in original container.Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F 
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Substances and mixtures corrosive to metals (chapter 2.16)1
P235Keep cool.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4 
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1 ,2
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
P240Ground/bond container and receiving equipment.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5- If the explosive is electrostatically sensitive.
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3- if electrostatically sensitive material is for reloading.
- if product is volatile so as to generate hazardous atmosphere.
Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2- if electrostatically sensitive material is for reloading.
P241Use explosion-proof electrical/ventilating/lighting/.../equipment.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify other equipment.
Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify other equipment.
- if dust clouds can occur.
P242Use only non-sparking tools.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
P243Take precautionary measures against static discharge.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
P250Do not subject to grinding/shock/.../friction.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify applicable rough handling.
P251Pressurized container: Do not pierce or burn, even after use.Flammable aerosols (chapter 2.3)1,2 
P260Do not breathe dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.Acute toxicity - inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify applicable conditions
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure (chapter 3.9)1, 2
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C- specify do not breathe dusts or mists
- if inhalable particles of dusts or mists may occur during use.
Reproductive toxicity - effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional category
P261Avoid breathing dust/fume/gas/mist/vapours/spray.Acute toxicity - inhalation (chapter 3.1)3, 4Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify applicable conditions
Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P262Do not get in eyes, on skin, or on clothing.Acute toxicity - dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2 
P263Avoid contact during pregnancy/while nursing.Reproductive toxicity - effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional category 
P264Wash...thoroughly after handlingAcute toxicity - oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify parts of the body to be washed after handling.
Acute toxicity - dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B
Reproductive toxicity - effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional category
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure (chapter 3.9)1
P270Do not eat, drink or smoke when using this product.Acute toxicity - oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4 
Acute toxicity - dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4
Reproductive toxicity - effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional category
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure (chapter 3.9)1
P271Use only outdoors or in a well-ventilated areaAcute toxicity - inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4 
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.9)3
P272Contaminated work clothing should not be allowed out of the workplace.Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P273Avoid release to the environment.Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute toxicity (chapter 4.1)1, 2, 3- if this is not the intended use
Hazardous to the aquatic environment, chronic toxicity (chapter 4.1)1, 2, 3, 4
P280Wash...thoroughly after handlingExplosives (chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5Specify face protection.
Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify type of equipment.
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4- Specify protective gloves and eye/face protection.

Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify type of equipment.

Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1, 2
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Acute toxicity - dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4- Specify protective gloves/clothing.
Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify type of equipment
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C- Specify protective gloves/clothing and eye/face protection.
Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify type of equipment
Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2- Specify protective gloves.
Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify type of equipment
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Severe eye damage (chapter 3.3)1- Specify eye/face protection.
Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify type of equipment
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A
P281Use personal protective equipment as required.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Unstable Explosives 
Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
P282Wear cold insulating gloves/face shield/eye protection.Gases under pressure (chapter 2.5)Refrigerated liquefied gas 
P283Wear fire/flame resistant/retardant clothingOxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1 
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P284Wear respiratory protection.Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify equipment.
P285In case of inadequate ventilation wear respiratory protection.Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify equipment.
P231 + P232Handle under inert gas. Protect from moisture.Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3 
P235 + P410Keep cool. Protect from sunlight.Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1, 2 
NOTICE: No Food or Drink sign         Fire Extinguisher wall sign         skull and crossbones pictogram

Safety Emporium carries all kinds of signs to help protect your workplace.

Response Precautionary Statement Codes, P3xx

CodeResponse Precautionary StatementHazard Class (GHS Chapter)Hazard CategoryConditions for Use
P301IF SWALLOWED:Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Aspiration hazard (chapter 3.10)1, 2
P303IF ON SKIN:Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1 
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4
Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
P302IF ON SKIN (or hair):Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
P304IF INHALED:Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P305IF IN EYES:Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C 
Severe eye damage (chapter 3.3)1
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B
P306IF ON CLOTHING:Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1 
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P307IF exposed:Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1 
P308IF exposed or concerned:Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2 
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity, effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional Category
P309IF exposed or if you feel unwell:Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)2 
P310Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3 
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Severe eye damage (chapter 3.3)1
>Aspiration hazard (chapter 3.10)1, 2
P311Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)3 
Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1,2
P312Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)4 
Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)5
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)3, 4, 5
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)4
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)5
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P313Get medical advice/attention.Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2, 3 
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity, effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional category
P314Get medical advice/attention if you feel unwell.Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure (chapter 3.8)1, 2 
P315Get immediate medical advice/attention.Gases under pressure (chapter 2.5)Refrigerated liquefied gas 
P320Specific treatment is urgent (see ... on this label).Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2...Reference to supplemental first aid instruction.
- if immediate administration of antidote is required.
P321Specific treatment (see ... on this label).Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2...Reference to supplemental first aid instruction.
- if immediate administration of antidote is required.
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)3...Reference to supplemental first aid instruction.
- if immediate specific measures are required.
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C...Reference to supplemental first aid instruction.

- Manufacturer/supplier or competent authority may specify a cleansing agent if appropriate.

Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1...Reference to supplemental first aid instruction.
- if immediate measures are required.
P322Specific measures (see ... on this label).Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2...Reference to supplemental first aid instruction.
- if immediate measures such as specific cleansing agent is advised.
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)3, 4
P330Rinse mouth.Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
P331Do NOT induce vomiting.Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C 
>Aspiration hazard (chapter 3.10)1, 2
P332If skin irritation occurs:Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P333If skin irritation or rash occurs:Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P334Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1 
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2
P335Brush off loose particles from skin.Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1 
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2
P336Thaw frosted parts with lukewarm water. Do not rub affected area.Gases under pressure (chapter 2.5)Refrigerated liquefied gas 
P337If eye irritation persists:Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B 
P338Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C 
Severe eye damage (chapter 3.3)1
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B
P340Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P341If breathing is difficult, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P342If experiencing respiratory symptoms:Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P350Gently wash with plenty of soap and water.Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2 
P351Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes.Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C 
Severe eye damage (chapter 3.3)1
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B
P352Wash with plenty of soap and water.Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)3, 4 
Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
P353Rinse skin with water/shower.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
P360Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1 
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
361Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
P362Take off contaminated clothing and wash before reuse.Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2 
P363Wash contaminated clothing before reuse.Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3 
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)4
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
P370In case of fire:Explosives (chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 
Oxidizing gases (chapter 2.4)1
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4
Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
P371In case of major fire and large quantities:Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1 
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P372Explosion risk in case of fire.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Unstable explosives and Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5- except if explosives are 1.4S AMMUNITION AND COMPONENTS THEREOF.
P373DO NOT fight fire when fire reaches explosives.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Unstable explosives and Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5- except if explosives are 1.4S AMMUNITION AND COMPONENTS THEREOF.
P374Fight fire with normal precautions from a reasonable distance.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Division 1.4- if explosives are 1.4S AMMUNITION AND COMPONENTS THEREOF.
375Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosionSelf-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B 
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P376Stop leak if safe to do so.Oxidizing gases (chapter 2.4)1 
P377Leaking gas fire: Do not extinguish, unless leak can be stopped safely.Flammable gases (chapter 2.2)1, 2 
P378Use ... for extinction.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify appropriate media

- if water increases risk

Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
P380Evacuate area.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Unstable explosives 
Explosives (chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P381Eliminate all ignition sources if safe to do so.Flammable gases (chapter 2.2)1, 2 
P390Absorb spillage to prevent material damage.Substances and mixtures corrosive to metals (chapter 2.16)1 
P391Collect spillage.Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute toxicity (chapter 4.1)1 
Hazardous to the aquatic environment, chronic toxicity (chapter 4.1)1,2
P391Collect spillage.Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute toxicity (chapter 4.1)1 
Hazardous to the aquatic environment, chronic toxicity (chapter 4.1)1,2
P301 + P310IF SWALLOWED: Immediately call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3 
>Aspiration hazard (chapter 3.10)1,2
P301 + P312IF SWALLOWED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)4 
P301 + P330 + P331IF SWALLOWED: Rinse mouth. Do NOT induce vomiting.Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C 
P302 + P334IF ON SKIN: Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1 
P302 + P350IF ON SKIN: Gently wash with plenty of soap and water.Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2 
P302 + P352IF ON SKIN: Wash with plenty of soap and water.Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)3, 4 
Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
P303 + P361 + P353IF ON SKIN (or hair): Remove/Take off immediately all contaminated clothing. Rinse skin with water/shower.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.21A, 1B, 1C
P304 + P312IF INHALED: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician if you feel unwell.Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)5 
P304 + P340IF INHALED: Remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4 
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P304 + P341IF INHALED: If breathing is difficult, remove victim to fresh air and keep at rest in a position comfortable for breathing.Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P305 + P351 + P338IF IN EYES: Rinse cautiously with water for several minutes. Remove contact lenses, if present and easy to do. Continue rinsing.Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C 
Severe eye damage (chapter 3.3)1
Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B
P306 + P360IF ON CLOTHING: Rinse immediately contaminated clothing and skin with plenty of water before removing clothes.Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1 
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
P307 + P311IF exposed: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1 
P308 + P313IF exposed or concerned: Get medical advice/attention.Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2 
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity, effects on or via lactation (chapter 3.7)Additional category
P309 + P311IF exposed or if you feel unwell: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)2 
P332 + P313If skin irritation occurs: Get medical advice/ attention.Skin irritation (chapter 3.2)2, 3 
P333 + P313If skin irritation or rash occurs: Get medical advice/attention.Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P335 + P334Brush off loose particles from skin. Immerse in cool water/wrap in wet bandages.Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1 
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2
P337 + P313If eye irritation persists: Get medical advice/attention.Eye irritation (chapter 3.3)2A, 2B 
P342 + P311If experiencing respiratory symptoms: Call a POISON CENTER or doctor/physician.Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1 
P370 + P376In case of fire: Stop leak if safe to do so.Oxidizing gases (chapter 2.4)1 
P370 + P378In case of fire: Use ... for extinction.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify appropriate media.

- if water increases risk.

Flammable solids (chapter 2.7)1, 2
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
P370 + P380In case of fire: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.Explosives (chapter 2.1)Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5 
P370 + P380 + P375In case of fire: Evacuate area.Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B 
P371 + P380 + P375In case of major fire and large quantities: Evacuate area. Fight fire remotely due to the risk of explosion.Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1 
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1
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Storage Precautionary Statement Codes, P4xx

CodeStorage Precautionary StatementHazard Class (GHS Chapter)Hazard CategoryConditions for Use
P401Store ...Explosives (chapter 2.1)Unstable explosives and Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5...in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulations (to be specified).
P402Store in a dry place.Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3 
P403Store in a dry place.Flammable gases (chapter 2.2)1, 2 
Oxidizing gases (chapter 2.4)1
Gases under pressure (chapter 2.5)Compressed gas
Liquefied gas
Refrigerated Liquefied gas
Dissolved gas
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3- if product is volatile so as to generate hazardous atmosphere.
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P404Store in a closed container.Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3 
P405Store locked up.Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3 
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
>Aspiration hazard (chapter 3.10)1, 2
P406Store in corrosive resistant/... container with a resistant inner liner.Substances and mixtures corrosive to metals (chapter 2.16)1, 2, 3...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify other compatible materials.
P407Maintain air gap between stacks/pallets.Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1, 2 
P410Protect from sunlight.Flammable aerosols (chapter 2.3)1, 2 
Gases under pressure (chapter 2.5)Compressed gas
Liquefied gas
Dissolved gas
Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1, 2
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
P411Store at temperatures not exceeding ...°C/...°F.Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify temperature.
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
P412Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/ 122 °F.Flammable aerosols (chapter 2.3)1, 2 
P413Store bulk masses greater than ... kg/... lbs at temperatures not exceeding ...°C/...°F.Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1, 2...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify mass and temperature.
P420Store away from other materials.Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F 
Self-heating substances and mixtures (chapter 2.11)1,2
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
P420Store contents under ...Pyrophoric liquids (chapter 2.9)1...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify appropriate liquid or inert gas.
Pyrophoric solids (chapter 2.10)1
P402 + P404Store in a dry place. Store in a closed container.Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3 
P404 + P233Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep container tightly closed.Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3- if product is volatile so as to generate hazardous atmosphere.
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
P403 + P235Store in a well-ventilated place. Keep cool.Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4 
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
P410 + P2403Protect from sunlight. Store in a well-ventilated place.Gases under pressure (chapter 2.5)Compressed gas 
Liquefied gas
Dissolved gas
P410 + P412Protect from sunlight. Do not expose to temperatures exceeding 50 °C/122 °F.Flammable aerosols (chapter 2.3)1, 2 
P411 + P235Store at temperatures not exceeding ... °C/... °F. Keep cool.Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F...Manufacturer/supplier or the competent authority to specify temperature.
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Disposal Precautionary Statement Codes, P5xx

CodeStorage Precautionary StatementHazard Class (GHS Chapter)Hazard CategoryConditions for Use
P501Dispose of contents/container to ...Explosives (chapter 2.1)Unstable explosives and Divisions 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5...in accordance with local/regional/national/international regulation (to be specified).
Flammable liquids (chapter 2.6)1, 2, 3, 4
Self-reactive substances and mixtures (chapter 2.8)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Substances and mixtures which, in contact with water, emit flammable gases (chapter 2.12)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing liquids (chapter 2.13)1, 2, 3
Oxidizing solids (chapter 2.14)1, 2, 3
Organic peroxides (chapter 2.15)Types A, B, C, D, E, F
Acute toxicity, oral (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4
Acute toxicity, dermal (chapter 3.1)1, 2, 3, 4
Acute toxicity, inhalation (chapter 3.1)1, 2
Skin corrosion (chapter 3.2)1A, 1B, 1C
Respiratory sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Skin sensitization (chapter 3.4)1
Germ cell mutagenicity (chapter 3.5)1A, 1B, 2
Carcinogenicity (chapter 3.6)1A, 1B, 2
Reproductive toxicity (chapter 3.7)1A, 1B, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure (chapter 3.8)1, 2
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; respiratory tract irritation (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, single exposure; narcotic effects (chapter 3.8)3
Specific target organ toxicity, repeated exposure (chapter 3.9)1,2
>Aspiration hazard (chapter 3.10)1, 2
Hazardous to the aquatic environment, acute toxicity (chapter 4.1)1, 2, 3
Hazardous to the aquatic environment, chronic toxicity (chapter 4.1)1, 2, 3, 4

SDS Relevance

The US, Europe, and numerous other countries have adopted the Globally Harmonized System, which requires manufacturers and importers of potentially hazardous chemicals to perform a hazard classification of the materials they sell or import.

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If that process, required under Paragraph (d) of 29 CFR 1910.1200, the OSHA Hazard Communication Standard (HCS 2012), indicates a potential hazard, it must be disclosed by both P- and H-statements (if necessary) on both the Safety Data Sheet (see paragraph (g)) and the label (see paragraph (f)).

Per Appendix D of HCS 2012, the H- and P-statements will appear in Section 2 of the SDS. Note: If a sheet was issued before the HCS 2012 took full effect the (M)SDS may not only be in a different format, it may not contain these statements. If you have a sheet like this in your collection you should attempt to find a current version. Remember that P-statements phrases only indicate the safety precautions that you need to follow when using the material, not the explicit hazards of the material. For hazards information see the Hazard Statements entry.

This section discusses SDS relevance, but the importance of H- and P-statements on labels is paramount so we will address that here. Per paragraph C.2.4 of Appendix C of HCS 2012, the P-statements will also appear on on the label, however they may sometimes be combined or omitted:

C.2.4.6

Precautionary statements may be combined or consolidated to save label space and improve readability. For example, "Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame," "Store in a well-ventilated place" and "Keep cool" can be combined to read "Keep away from heat, sparks and open flame and store in a cool, well-ventilated place."

C.2.4.7

In most cases, the precautionary statements are independent (e.g., the phrases for explosive hazards do not modify those related to certain health hazards, and products that are classified for both hazard classes shall bear appropriate precautionary statements for both). Where a chemical is classified for a number of hazards, and the precautionary statements are similar, the most stringent shall be included on the label (this will be applicable mainly to preventive measures). An order of precedence may be imposed by the chemical manufacturer, importer or responsible party in situations where phrases concern "Response." Rapid action may be crucial. For example, if a chemical is carcinogenic and acutely toxic, rapid action may be crucial, and first aid measures for acute toxicity will take precedence over those for long-term effects. In addition, medical attention to delayed health effects may be required in cases of incidental exposure, even if not associated with immediate symptoms of intoxication.

Further Reading

See also: ANSI, CHIP, EINECS, Hazard Statements, risk phrases, signal words, UN/NA numbers, and the International Section of the SDS FAQ.

Additional definitions from Google and OneLook.



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