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Carboxylic acids that have long (12 to 24 carbon atom) unbranched aliphatic groups are called fatty acids.
The names of carboxylic acids should end in "oic acid" according to official IUPAC nomenclature rules (see link below), however older common names that end in "ic acid" are still used. The "oic acid" naming scheme is superior because it unambiguously identifies the material as a carboxylic acid. In cases where another functional group takes naming precedence, "carboxy" is used as a prefix, although in certain cases the suffix "carboxylic acid" may also be used!
When a carboxylic acid is neutralized with a base it becomes a salt that is itself a weak base. The salt is named using the suffix "oate" instead of "oic acid". Sodium benzoate, shown below, is a common food preservative:
Carboxylic acids occur naturally in many organisms, and are primary components of your DNA. Examples of carboxylic acids you routinely encounter include ascorbic acid (vitamin C), acetic acid (vinegar is a 5% aqueous solution of vinegar), and citric acid (responsible for the sourness/tartness of citrus fruits).
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