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|Ketones and Aldehydes|
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Under IUPAC nomenclature aldehydes are named by taking the name of the longest acyclic hydrocarbon chain in the molecule, dropping the terminal "e" (if present), and adding the suffix "al", "aldehyde" or "carbaldehyde". In some cases the prefix "formyl" may be used. Two aldehydes are indicated by the suffix "dial". In addition, a number of trivial (traditional) names are still recognized. For detailed naming rules see Further Reading below.
Aldehydes and ketones are widely used industrial chemicals both as solvents and as chemical intermediates (ingredients for other chemicals). Most can be classified as volatile organic compounds meaning that their vapors may be easily inhaled or ignited. Many ketones and aldehydes are also flammable as liquids and solids.
Several ketones and aldehydes have been classified as known or likely carcinogens. For example, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde are known carcinogens. Studies are still underway on glutaraldehyde but it appears to have a much lower risk (if any) of carcinogenicity than formaldehyde. Acetone has not been reported to cause cancer.
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The desirable chemical reactivity properties of aldehydes become undesirable when these chemicals enter your body, so be sure to read the label and MSDS for any ketone or aldehyde-containing materials before use. Take appropriate precautions when working with them - engineering controls such as fume hoods and personal protective equipment (PPE) such as gloves and respirators are a very good idea.
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See also: alcohol, carboxylic acid, chemical formula, carbon monoxide, ketosis, VOC.
Additional definitions from Google and OneLook.
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